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    1. RASHI METHOD: REFERENCES
    BRIEF EXPLANATION: Commentary on a verse is provided thru a cross-reference to another verse. The cross references can either provide
    • (1a) further details,
    • (1b) confirm citations, or
    • (1c) clarify word meaning.
    This examples applies to Rashis Gn48-09b
    URL Reference: (c) http://www.Rashiyomi.com/w33n6.htm
    Brief Summary: Rashi explains Ho11-03 by cross referencing Gn48-09b: I, God, gentled to the Israelite Kingdom as Jacob gentled to Ephraim - I also (like Jacob) took them on my shoulders [to bless them] but they did not appreciate

Verse Ho10-15 - Ho11-01:03 discussing the rebellion of the Israelite kingdom against God states So shall Beth-El do to you because of your great wickedness; at dawn shall the king of Israel be cut off completely. When Israel was a child, then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt. As they called them, so they went from them; they sacrificed to the Baalim, and burned incense to carved idols. I gentled Ephraim, taking him on his arms; but they knew not that I healed them. I drew them with human cords, with bands of love; and I was to them like those who take off the yoke from their jaws, and I laid food to them. In this passage the bolded words, Beth-El and Ephraim refer to Israelite Kingdom [its capital is Beth-El and its monarch comes from the tribe of Ephraim.] Rashi notes The underlined words, gentled Ephraim, taking him on his arms references and puns verse Gn48-09b which creates an analogy God:Jacob:Ephraim::God:Moses:Ephraim-Israelite-Kingdom. In fact Gn48-09,13,20 states And Joseph said to his father, They are my sons, whom God has given me in this place. And he said, Bring them, I beg you, to me, and I will bless them...Ephraim in his right hand toward Israelís left hand... And he blessed them that day, saying, By you [as a model] shall Israel bless, saying, God make you as Ephraim

    The points of the analogy are as follows:
    • God's spirit moved Jacob to gently bring Ephraim near
    • Jacob blessed Ephraim
    • Jacob asserted that his blessing of Ephraim is a model for all blessings.
    In a similar way
    • God's spirit moved Moses to gently bring the Israelites near God
    • Moses blessed the Israelites who were like a newborn child

    Perhaps this sounds excessively poetic. We therefore translate the verse in Hosea:
  • So shall Beth-El[Israelite Kingdom] do to you because of your great wickedness; at dawn shall the king of Israel be cut off completely.
  • When Israel was a child [New in world like Ephraim], then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt.
  • As they called them, so they went from them; they sacrificed to the Baalim, and burned incense to carved idols.
  • I gentled Ephraim,[pun on Ephraim=Jacob's son; Ephraim=Israelite Kingdom]
  • taking him on his arms; [pun on Moses bearing Jews like nursemaid (Nu11-12)]
  • but they knew not that I healed them.
  • I drew them with human cords, with bands of love; and I was to them like those who take off the yoke from their jaws, and I laid food to them.

Text of Target Verse Ho10-15; Ho11-01:03 Text of Reference Verse Gn48-09,13,20
  • So shall Beth-El[Israelite Kingdom] do to you because of your great wickedness; at dawn shall the king of Israel be cut off completely.
  • When Israel was a child [New in world like Ephraim], then I loved him, and called my son out of Egypt.
  • As they called them, so they went from them; they sacrificed to the Baalim, and burned incense to carved idols.
  • I gentled Ephraim,[pun on Ephraim=Jacob's son; Ephraim=Israelite Kingdom]
  • taking him on his arms; [pun on Moses bearing Jews like nursemaid (Nu11-12)]
  • but they knew not that I healed them.
  • I drew them with human cords, with bands of love; and I was to them like those who take off the yoke from their jaws, and I laid food to them.
And Joseph said to his father, They are my sons, whom God has given me in this place. And he said, Bring them, I beg you, to me, and I will bless them...Ephraim in his right hand toward Israelís left hand... And he blessed them that day, saying, By you [as a model] shall Israel bless, saying, God make you as Ephraim
Rashi comments: The Hosean verse puns the Ephraim blessing model. Ephraim is also the name of the Israelite kingdom. The kingdom was newborn like Ephraim. Both received gentle treatment: Ephraim from Jacob and the Israelite kingdom from the prophets like Moses. Both received blessings. So the prophet Hosea uses language to conjur deeply emotional imagery of grandpa Jacob taking Ephraim and blessing him as an analogy to the prophets like Moses gently leading the Israelite kingdom on the way.

Advanced Rashi: There is an interesting twist: Typically Rashi explains the current verse in light of another verse while today Rashi explains another verse using the current verse. Note: Rashi has not deviated from the simple meaning of the Hosean verse. Rather Rashi correctly points out that the language chosen conjurs overlaying images of grandpa Jacob taking Ephraim and blessing him as an analogy to the gentle treatment that God had given Ephraim (and for which they are being punished for double crossing God). In other words Rashi sees pun nuances in the Hosean verses and defends this perspective using references.


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