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  |      Rashi is Simple Version 2.0                         |
  |      (C) Dr Hendel, Summer 2000                          |
  |       http://www.RashiYomi.Com                           |
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RASHIS COVERED: Dt11-25a Dt20-03c Dt20-03d Dt20-03e Dt20-03f
       Dt20-03g Dt27-26a Dt33-29a Ex18-21b Ex18-21c
       Ex18-21d Ex22-09a Ex22-12c Ex22-13a Lv18-07a
       Lv18-07b Lv18-08a Dt01-22a Dt32-02a Dt32-02c
       Dt07-05a Dt07-05b Dt07-05c Dt07-05d Dt12-03a
       Dt12-03b Dt12-03c Dt13-09a Dt13-09b Dt13-09c
       Dt13-09d Dt13-09e Ex23-01a Ex23-01b Ex23-02a
       Ex23-02b Ex23-02d Ex23-02e Ex23-02f Gn36-39a
       Gn09-05b Gn09-05c Gn09-05d Gn09-05e Gn09-06a
       Nu18-19b Nu18-19c Nu18-19d Nu17-23a Nu17-23b
       Nu17-23c Lv19-18b Ex23-03a Dt21-11b

                     --GRAND SUMMARY--
                       --METHOD 3b--

    Dt20-03 in a war do not be SOFT-HEARTED
                     do not be AFRAID
                     do not be ANXIOUS
                     do not be STUNNEd
    RASHI: The verse outlines the 4 components of fear of enemy
           Do not be afraid of enemy TRANSPORTATION(horses)
           Do not be afraid of enemy RESOURCES (shields)
           Do not be afraid of enemy COMMUNICATION(horns)
           Do not be afraid of enemy MORAL       (battle crys)
   Notice how Rashi interprets eg SOFT-HEARTED as referring
   to fear of HORSES and enemy TRANSPORTATION. But the phrase

   In method 2b we infer from the UNIFYING CONTEXT. It is the
   CONTEXT, not grammar or dictionary, that justifys the
   reinterpretation of words. Very often Rashi appears 'forced'
   or 'not clear'. To help clarify Rashi we should at least
   remember that he is using the principle of CONTEXT.


  In the following 3 sets of verses, Rashi interpreted
  the verses as describing all cases according to

(50) Lv18-07a  The nakedness of your father dont uncover
(51) Lv18-07b  She is your mother
(52) Lv18-08a  The nakedness of your fathers wife dont uncover

  These 3 phrases correspond to 3 types of sins with your
  fathers wife. The 3 sins could involve both INCEST and
  ADULTERY or just INCEST or NEITHER of them (and still
  be prohibited.) The above 3 phrases correspond to

 Lv18-07a INCEST&ADULTERY(Fathers wife     during  lifetime)
 Lv18-07b INCEST         (mother           after   fathers death)
 Lv18-08a                (Fathers 2nd wife after   his death)

(53) Dt13-09a
(54) Dt13-09b
(55) Dt13-09c
(56) Dt13-09d
(57) Dt13-09e

 BACKGROUND: The Bible is speaking about someone who tries to
 seduce you to worship idols. The Bible asks for no mercy on
 these people whether BEFORE, DURING or AFTER both the ACT
 and TRIAL.

 ---Don't ACQUIESCE (BEFORE the ACT--dont' DEBATE him)
 ---Don't LISTEN    (DURING the ACT--WARN him it is wrong)
 ---Don't PITY him  (AFTER the  ACT---bring him to COURT)
 ---Don't CARE      (DURING     TRIAL-argue AGAINST him)*2
 ---Don't CONCEAL*1 (AFTER      TRIAL-APPEAL mistrials)*2

 *1 Clearly these 5 words have nothing to do with the
    classification scheme. Thus it is the rule of CONTEXT
    that dictates meaning not the grammar

 *2 In ordinary cases you canNOT appeal a mistrial of acquital
    Similarly there are restrictions on who can offer arguments
    against the accused But in this case these laws of 'mercy'
    are suspended.

(58) Ex22-09a
(59) Ex22-12c
(60) Ex22-13a  What types of deposits are there?*1
          The Bible interprets these 3 paragraphs using 2
          parameters or questions:
          QUESTION 1: Was it done for HIRE or for FREE
          QUESTION 2: Did YOU ask HIM or did HE ask YOU

 Ex22-09a---You can WATCH someone elses property for FREE
 Ex22-12c---You can WATCH someone elses property for HIRE
         ---You can LOAN  someone elses property for HIRE
 Ex22-13a---You can LOAN someone  elses property for FREE

 *1 The Torah *does* identify the FREE LOANER.
    Ex22-13a says "When you loan from a friend"

    But the Torah *does not* identify the paragraph
    with the WATCHER FOR HIRE. It no where says this
    paragraph is about the watcher for hire. Rather
    this is an inference based on CONTEXT and the
    different laws.

    Thus the intepretation of the paragraph is derived
    from the principle of CONTEXT and not from the actual

   In the following verses  the Bible uses a DETAIL-GENERAL
   style. All we know is that the DETAILS are part of a
   GENERAL idea. Rashi does NOT reinterpret the details but
   just points out that the details are GENERALIZED to all

(61) Dt27-26a The Torah curses those who don't fulfill the
         Torah using a DETAIL-GENERAL form.

      The following verses are DETAILS

 Dt27-15 Cursed be the person who worships IDOLS
 Dt27-16 Cursed be who despiseth his PARENTS
 Dt27-17 Cursed be who stealeth his neighbors BOUNDARY
 Dt27-18 Cursed be who stumbles a BLIND person... (DETAIL)

     The following verses are GENERAL

 Dt27-26 Cursed be who doesn't fulfill this Torah (GENERAL)

 RASHI: This last verse is GENERAL and includes the whole
 Torah (So the other curses are components that include
 all aspects of Torah--such as IDOLATRY, RESPECTING PARENTS..)

(62) Dt33-29a Moses gave blessings using a GENERAL-DETAIL-GENERAL

     The following verses are GENERAL

 Dt33-01 This is the blessing that Moses gave ALL JEWS(GENERAL)

      The following verses are DETAILS

 Dt33-06 To May REUBEN Live----------------------------DETAILS
 Dt33-07 May JUDAH be part of his nation
 Dt33-08 May LEVI teach torah
 Dt33-12 May BINYAMIN be the BELOVED of God
 Dt33-13 May JOSEPH have a blessed land

     The following verses are GENERAL

 Dt33-29 Happy are you ALL JEWS                        GENERAL

 RASHI: (This chapter has a GENERAL-DETAIL-GENERAL form.)
 After blessing each tribe in detail Moses said
 "Why should I give a specific Blessing to each of you...
 I instead mingle blessings to ALL of you" (Thus Rashi
 used the GENERAL-DETAIL-GENERAL form.) Apparently the
 Blessings to each tribe list components of blessings
 such PHYSICAL (Asher), Good neighborhood (Joseph),
 Intellectual (Levi) etc.

     In the remaining examples Rashi interprets the
     3 or 4 examples as indicating COMPONENTS of
     some attribute. Very often Rashi will take
     synonyms and reinterpret them to correspond
     to these components. These reinterpretations
     come from the principle of CONTEXT not from
     the words. Furthermore the interpretation is
     not forced. These types of verses lend themselves
     best to multiple legitimate interpretations from
     several commentaries.

(63) Dt01-22a The Bible describes 4 types of LEADERSHIP

(64) Nu17-23a
(65) Nu17-23b
(66) Nu17-23c

  The Bible gives 3 stages in development of fruit

 *1 As the Sifsay Chachamim points out several of the
    words in this verse have multiple meanings. But
    Rashi uses the principles of CONTEXT to interpret
    the various words  Thus the final determination of
    the word comes from the principle of CONTEXT.

(67) Nu18-19b
(68) Nu18-19c

  The Bible lists 3 stages in keeping a treaty

 --Intent of both sides to keep-------------------------TREATY
 --Intent to keep even if new circumstances arise-------SALTED*1
 --Intent to help outsiders(besides the treaty parties)-WORLDLY*2

*1 SALT is used to denote BOTH destruction and giving TASTE
   To resolve this apparent contradiciton we see that
   SALT is a PRESERVATIVE--it preserves destruction (by
   preventing growth) and preserves taste
   Hence it is symbolic of PRESERVING the treaty (EVEN If
   new circumstances arise)

*2 eg The Hebrew word LOLAM means both WORLDLY and FOREVER
   Rashi here selects meanings according to the principles
   of CONTEXT. It is this principle which determines which
   meaning will be used.

(70) Dt20-03c
(71) Dt20-03d
(72) Dt20-03e
(73) Dt20-03f
(74) Dt20-03g

   BACKGROUND: Dt20-03 speaks about What you should you
   not be afraid of in a war

   One should not be afraid of enemy TRANSPORT ability
   One should not be afraid of enemy WEAPONS
   One should not be afraid of enemy COMMUNICATIONS
   One should not be afraid of enemy TROOP MORALE*1

 *1 The Rashis on Dt20-03 list 4 components to a war
 Dt20-03c The 4 words in the verse correspond to 4 fears
 Dt20-03d "Dont be soft hearted" RASHI: From HORSE TRAMPLING
 Dt20-03e "Dont be afraid" RASHI: From sheild clapping
 Dt20-03f "Dont be hurried(?anxious)" RASHI: From horn blasts
 Dt20-03g "Dont be shattered" RASHI: From Troop cries

   How does Rashi eg connect the word SOFT HEARTED with
   horse trampling? The answer is he doesn't (There in fact
   is no connection)*2 Rather Rashi connects the 4 terms
   in Dt20-03 with the 4 terms in Dt20-01 as shown in
   the following table. Because of this we are prone
   to suggest that Rashi simply used the verse as
   a vehicle for enumerating the 4 major fears in war.
   In other words it is CONTEXT not grammar and the
   dictionary that determines meaning.

 {LIST1} {The left column contains the 4 words of fear in
         Dt20-03. The next column contains the Rashis on
         these words followed by the associated military
         concept. As can be seen
         eg HORSES in Rashi (column 2 row 1) does NOT
         correspond to SOFT HEARTED in the verse (col 1)
         But HORSES in Rashi **does** correspond to
         HORSES in Dt20-01}

 Words in      Rashi on     Military         Words in
 Dt20-03       Dt20-03      Concept          Dt20-01
 -------       --------     --------         ---------
 soft hearted  From Horses  Transportation   Horses
 Fear          From Shields Weapons          Chariots
 Hurried       From horns   Communications   Nation
 Shattered     Troop crys   Troop morale     More than you

   Our Goal here is to show that Rashi did NOT derive
   the meanings of the terms from these terms but rather
   from the context. In this footnote we show that
   there is no correspondence between the terms in the
   verse and the terms in Rashi by themselves without context

   EXAMPLES (Of how Rashi was not being picky on words)
 2a)SOFT HEARTED denotes any lack of steadfastness or inability
  to stand and stick to something(eg 2Ch13-07 "Rechavan was
  young and soft hearted (and couldn't stand up to Yaravam)"

  So there is no correspondence between SOFT HEARTED and CRY

 2b)The Hebrew word CHAFAZ means "HURRIED" as in Ex12-11 "Eat
   the passover HURRIEDLY" or 2S4-4 "They hurried to leave and
   ..he fell, laming him" Why then should HORN BLASTS be
   associated with a feeling of HURRIEDNESS (Anxiety)

 2c)The Hebrew word ARATZ seems to mean SHATTERED (physically
   or emotionally) as in Isa10-33 ("Twigging a tree with a
   TREE SHATTERER").  Why then should TROOP CRIES be associated
   with SHATTERED.

 2d) There is no CLIMACTIC DEVELOPMENT in this verse
 eg. Dt01-29 says "Dont be SHATTERED or AFRAID"
 vs  Dt31-06 says "Dont be AFRAID    or SHATTERED"
 So neither of these words (SHATTERED vs AFRAID) is worse than
 the other. (This corresponds to the principle that MORE
 important items are ALWAYS listed first while EQUAL items are
 sometimes listed in either order (see

(75) Dt11-25a
 Using Dt07-22 Rashi lists 4 stages in destroying a nation(in war)
 ----Destroy the COUNTRY
 ----Destroy the LEADERS who might be left over & rebuilt
 ----Eradicate their GOOD NAME (It might inspire rebuilding)
 ----Don't allow any ESCAPEES (who might rebuild out of revenge)

(76) Ex18-21b
(77) Ex18-21c
(78) Ex18-21d How do you become a Good Businessman*3

  Here are the details. Good business requires
 ---Business Skills *1
 ---They Waive won lawsuits in minor matters

 *1 The Hebrew word ChaYiL means SKILLEd not strong.
   This has been defended on Gn47-06 (eg Proverbs 31:10 means
   "who will find a SKILLED wife" not 'who will find a
    POWERFUL or STRONG wife')
 *2 "People of TRUTH"=People who advance credits in
   the Business world
 *3 The actual context is to get good Judges. Jethro
   suggests that the best judges come from good
   businessmen. Note Rambam Chapter 2 of Sanhedrin
   gives a different bent on this verse.


(79) Dt32-02a
(80) Dt32-02c The Bible lists components of RAIN
         The Bible/Rashi compares TEACHING to RAIN

 ----DEW ------Short pithy summaries
 ----MIST------Light interplay between students reviewing dialogue
 ----DOWNPOURS-Rich applications

(81) Dt07-05a
(82) Dt07-05b
(83) Dt07-05c
(84) Dt07-05d
(85) Dt12-03a
(86) Dt12-03b
(87) Dt12-03c These Biblical verses  lists 4 components
         of idolatrous religions

  ---ALTARS (For sacrifices)
  ---MONUMENTS(For social gatherings of adherents)
  ---Idol TREES(For beauty &  physical appeal)
  ---Actual IDOLS (Symbolizing their gods)

(88) Ex23-01a
(89) Ex23-01b
(90) Ex23-02a
(91) Ex23-02b
(92) Ex23-02d
(93) Ex23-02e
(94) Ex23-02f (Ex23-03a NOTE: Added Aug 20,2001 )

  BACKGROUND: The Bible is discussing components of a good
              Judicial system.

  The Bible lists 5 components

 --Listen to both       LITIGANTS*1
 --Have good(not false) WITNESSES
 --Have good            JUDICIAL PROCESS*2
 --each Judge           JUDGES INDEPENDENTLY*3
 --avoid                SOCIETY CONSIDERATIONS*4

 *1 Most of these correspondences are explicit. However
    for the first correspondence the Bible says 'Don't
    bear a worthless listening' which is INTERPRETED to
    mean 'Dont hear 1 side without the other'. As we
    have continuously emphasized, the guiding principle
    of interpretation in these verses is the principle
    of CONTEXT not the grammar or words. This is a
    legitimate literary approach.

 *2 Convictions required a majority of 2 in capital cases
    Acquitals only required a majority of 1

 *3 Younger judges should not 'vote along party lines' but
   rather should defend the case as they see it

 *4 eg Do not say "The litigant is poor..if we take money from
    him we will have to give him charity Anyway...so let me
    acquit him)"

(95) Gn36-39a

 BACKGROUND: The Bible is simply listing names. However there was
 a strong movement(because of the multiple names each person had)
 to interpret these names as describing world situations. With
 names like GOLD & SPLENDOR Rashi felt it legitimate to interpret
 these as descriptions of the society which apparently was RICH

 Rashi shows the components of a RICH SOCIETY
 The actual verse reads (translating the names)

 "and his name was LUXURY
  from the city DESIRE
  whose wife was HOW-GOOD-GOD-IS
  daughter of GOLD."

 ---LUXURY (not just bare necessities)
 ---DESIRE (From the root PAH)

BACKGROUND: The Bible discusses the punishment for murder.
The Bible lists several types of murder (eg in front of
witnesses, by accident, suicide, with animals etc). Here
are the verses and here is how Rashi and Rambam interpret them

(96)Gn09-05a I'll seek the blood of your souls SUICIDE
(97)Gn09-05c I'll seek from all animals        MURDER BY ANIMAL*1
(98)Gn09-05d I'll seek from men                MURDER-NO WITNESS
(99)Gn09-05e             from your brothers*2  ACCIDENTAL MURDER
(100)Gn09-06a Murder will be punished by courtsMURDER & WITNESSES

 *1 Rashi gives a reason (why the law has to emphasize murder by
    animals is a punishable crime). 'Since the generation of the
    flood behaved like animals I might think that only
    deterministic murder is prohibited but exposing people, who
    behave like animals, to animals is not full fledged murder'
    Therefore the verse explicitly prohibits it

 *2  On these two phrases Rambam says

   'I will seek from men from your brothers'  MURDER BY AGENT

   Rambam (Murder Chapter 2) agrees with Rashi on 3 out of 5
   cases. The Rambam is much more logical than Rashi here.

   The Rambam only lists 3 (not 5) cases corresponding to the
   3 repeating "I WILL SEEK" in the verse. Furthermore the
   Rambam deals with different METHODS of murder but not with
   problems of INTENT and EVIDENCE (which is what Rashi deals

(100) Lv19-18b

BACKGROUND  (NOTE: Added Aug 15 2001 from xampl29)
Chapter Lv19 presents a long list of social commandments.
For example there is a commandment NOT TO HATE. Similarly
there is a commandment NOT TO TAKE REVENGE. Rashi here
perceives these commandments in climactic order

The torah presents 3 components of social commandments
-- Don't hate                                EMOTIONAL
-- Rebuke your friend                        VERBAL
-- Dont take revenge                         ACTION
     eg If he didn't loan you, nevertheless
     you should loan him
-- Love thy neighbor like thyself            GENERAL

It emerges from this Rashi that the commandment LOVE THY
NEIGHBOR LIKE THYSELF is perceived as the CLIMAX of the chapter.
That is LOVE THY NEIGHBOR LIKE THYSELF applies to all social
areas, including EMOTIONAL, VERBAL and ACTION. Now we have a
richer understanding of Rashis comment
   LOVE THY NEIGHBOR is an important Biblical prinicple
Precisely because LOVE THY NEIGHBOR unifies 3 broad
social areas, therefore, it is an important Biblical principle
It is for this reason that we have classified this Rashi here

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Volume 7 Number 15

#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*# (C) Dr Hendel, 2000 *#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*#*
Volume 7 Number 15