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From: rhendel@king.mcs.drexel.edu (Russell Hendel) Date: Tue, 4 Jun 1996 22:22:46 -0400 Subject: A helpful Technique for Difficult Verses I am responding to [Berger, 24.26] who cites a difficult verse from davening. Very often difficult verses with dangling phrases can be explained using the literary technique know as apposition. I use Gen 1:29,30 as an example. And God said: Behold I give to (1) you, (a) all grass on the ground, (b) all trees bearing fruit---(I give) to you to eat. (2) (And I also give the (a) grass and (b) trees)) to (2) wild animals, (3) birds, (4) insects...The verses appear difficult because of all the dangling phrases (the same problem raised by Berger). We can solve the problem by distinguishing what is INTENDED to be said, what is ACTUALLY said and how the TRANSITION from actual to intended is accomplished. INTENDED: God gives to the following: (1) people, (2) wild animals, (3) birds, (4) and insects...God gives to those 4 groups the following: (a) grass and (b) trees. ACTUAL: God gives to you grass and trees to you he gives. And to the wild animals and birds... TRANSITIONAL PRINCIPLE: The principle of apposition (I can't find a better term) simply states that compound sentence parts (subjects, objects, indirect objects, predicates) can be dealt with by singling out only one of the compound set initially (God gives to you --#(1)) and throwing in the remainder (#2,3,4 wild animals, birds, and insects) afterwards. It is this "throwing in" which sometimes confuses the reader (see Rashi on these posookim). This principle is very helpful in many cases. Quite simply then I would say that the intended sentence in Kedusha is that: Then in a VOICE they make heard a voice. The word VOICE is then developed by apposition with two sets of adjective pairs (a compound sentence part): VOICE that is roaring and big; VOICE that is majestic and strong. True you can read the verse as having 4 adjectives but it is permissable to read it as two sets of adjective pairs and it is equally permissable to sing it this way. For those interested in applications of this principle try counting the number oftimes it can be used in Pesokay Dezimra. Russell Hendel, rhendel @ mcs . drexel . edu