The 10 RashiYomi Rules
Their presence in Rashis on Parshat Korach
Volume 14, Number 18

Used in the weekly Rashi-is-Simple and the Daily Rashi.
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(c) RashiYomi Incorporated, Dr. Hendel, President,
June 10-th, 2010

The goal of this Weekly Rashi Digest is to use the weekly Torah portion to expose students at all levels to the ten major methods of commentary used by Rashi. It is hoped that continual weekly exposure to these ten major methods will enable students of all levels to acquire a familiarity and facility with the major exegetical methods. Although I frequently use my own English translations of biblical verses and Rashi comments, the Hebrew and English translations in the source tables are derived from online parshah files at who in turn acknowledges the Judaica Press Complete Tanach, copyright by Judaica Press.

    BRIEF EXPLANATION: Commentary on a verse is provided thru a cross-reference to another verse. The cross references can either provide
    • (1a) further details,
    • (1b) confirm citations, or
    • (1c) clarify word meaning.
    This examples applies to Rashis Nu16-19b
    URL Reference: (c)
    Brief Summary: God's HONOR appeared (Nu16-19) REFERENCES Nu17-07,Ex40-34, and Ex24-15:16 which associates God's HONOR with the DESCENT OF THE CLOUD

Verse Nu16-19b
Hebrew Verse וַיַּקְהֵל עֲלֵיהֶם קֹרַח אֶת כָּל הָעֵדָה אֶל פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וַיֵּרָא כְבוֹד יְ־הֹוָ־ה אֶל כָּל הָעֵדָה:
English Verse Korah assembled all the congregation against them at the entrance to the Tent of Meeting, and the glory of the Lord appeared before the entire congregation.
Rashi Header Hebrew וירא כבוד ה'
Rashi Text Hebrew בא בעמוד ענן:
Rashi Header Enlish and the glory of the Lord appeared
Rashi Text English He came in a pillar of cloud.

Verse Nu16-19 discussing the descent of God when he intervened in the Korach rebellion states And Korah assembled all the congregation against them unto the door of the tent of meeting; and the honor of God appeared unto all the congregation. Rashi notes that the underlined words, honor of God appeared unto all the congregation. references verses Nu17-07,Ex40-34, and Ex24-15:16. discussing God's Divine presence appearing. Hence the Rashi comment The statement in Nu16-19 that the Honor of God appeared references several other verses, for example, Nu17-07, Ex40-35, Ex24-15:16 which associate the appearance of God's honor with the descent of the cloud.

Text of Target Verse Nu16-19 Text of Reference Verse Nu17-07,Ex40-34, and Ex24-15:16.
And Korah assembled all the congregation against them unto the door of the tent of meeting; and the honor of God appeared unto all the congregation. . And Moses went up into the mount, and a cloud covered the mount. And the honor of the Lord abode upon Mount Sinai, .... Then a cloud covered the Tent of Meeting, and the honor of the Lord filled the tabernacle.... And it came to pass, when the congregation was gathered against Moses and against Aaron, that they looked toward the Tent of Meeting; and, behold, the cloud covered it, and the honor of the Lord appeared.
Rashi comments: The statement in Nu16-19 that the Honor of God appeared references several other verses, for example, Nu17-07, Ex40-35, Ex24-15:16 which associate the appearance of God's honor with the descent of the cloud.

      BRIEF EXPLANATION: The meaning of words can be explained either by
      • (2a) translating an idiom, a group of words whose collective meaning transcends the meaning of its individual component words,
      • (2b) explaining the nuances and commonality of synonyms-homographs,
      • (2c) describing the usages of connective words like also,because,if-then, when,
      • (2d) indicating how grammatical conjugation can change word meaning
      • (2e) changing word meaning using the figures of speech common to all languages such as irony and oxymorons.
      This examples applies to Rashis Nu18-27d
      URL Reference: (c)
      Brief Summary: The Hebrew YUD-KUPH-BETH, means WINEPRESS, comes from the Hebrew KUPH-BETH meaning HOLLOW.

Verse Nu18-27d
Hebrew Verse וְנֶחְשַׁב לָכֶם תְּרוּמַתְכֶם כַּדָּגָן מִן הַגֹּרֶן וְכַמְלֵאָה מִן הַיָּקֶב:
English Verse Your gift shall be considered for you as grain from the threshing-floor and as the produce of the vat.
Rashi Header Hebrew יקב
Rashi Text Hebrew הוא הבור שלפני הגת שהיין יורד לתוכו. וכל לשון יקב חפירת קרקע הוא, וכן (זכריה יד, י) יקבי המלך, הוא ים אוקיינוס חפירה שחפר מלכו של עולם:
Rashi Header Enlish vat
Rashi Text English Heb. יֶקֶב. This is the pit in front of the press into which the wine flows. The term יֶקֶב always denotes an excavation in the ground. Similarly,“the pits (יִקְבֵי) of the king” (Zech. 14:10), referring to the ocean-an excavation ‘dug’ by the King of the world. - [Peskita d’Rav Kahana p. 143; see also Song Rabbah 7:3, Mattenoth Kehunnah, Redal]

When Rashi uses what we might loosely call the hononym method he shows the underlying unity in disparate meanings of the same root. Very often this unity clarifies further known meanings.

    The Hebrew root Kuph-Beth means hollow. This root can refer to
  • the belly (the hollow of the body)
  • a hole (in a wall)
  • a hammar (to make holes)
  • female gender
  • a measure of volume (equal to the volume of 24 eggs)
  • a wine press( cavity in the ground)

As can be seen all the meanings are simply connected with the fundamental idea of hollow, hole and cavity.

      BRIEF EXPLANATION: Rashi explains verses using grammar principles, that is, rules which relate reproducable word form to word meaning. Grammatical rules neatly fall into 3 categories
      • (a) the rules governing conjugation of individual words,Biblical roots,
      • (b) the rules governing collections of words,clauses, sentences
      • (c) miscellaneous grammatical, or form-meaning, rules.
      This examples applies to Rashis Nu16-14c
      URL Reference: (c)
      Brief Summary: Moreover you have not brought us to a land of milk and honey; will you blind THEIR [OUR] eyes [so we can't see what you have done]

Verse Nu16-14c
Hebrew Verse אַף לֹא אֶל אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבַשׁ הֲבִיאֹתָנוּ וַתִּתֶּן לָנוּ נַחֲלַת שָׂדֶה וָכָרֶם הַעֵינֵי הָאֲנָשִׁים הָהֵם תְּנַקֵּר לֹא נַעֲלֶה:
English Verse You have not even brought us to a land flowing with milk and honey, nor have you given us an inheritance of fields and vineyards. Even if you gouge out the eyes of those men, we will not go up.
Rashi Header Hebrew האנשים ההם
Rashi Text Hebrew כאדם התולה קללתו בחבירו:
Rashi Header Enlish those men
Rashi Text English Like a person who attributes his own curse to his fellow.

Today Hebrew grammar is well understood and there are many books on it. Rashi, however, lived before the age of grammar books. A major Rashi method is therefore the teaching of basic grammar.

Many students belittle this aspect of Rashi. They erroneously think that because of modern methods we know more. However Rashi will frequently focus on rare grammatical points not covered in conventional textbooks.

    There are many classical aspects to grammar whether in Hebrew or other languages. They include
  • The rules for conjugating verbs. These rules govern how you differentiate person, plurality, tense, mode, gender, mood, and designation of the objects and indirect objects of the verb. For example how do you conjugate, in any language, I sang, we will sing, we wish to sing, she sang it.
  • Rules of agreement. For example agreement of subject and verb, of noun and adjective; whether agreement in gender or plurality.
  • Rules of Pronoun reference.
  • Rules of word sequence. This is a beautiful topic which is not always covered in classical grammatical textbooks.

Today we present a Rashi which is best understood using the rules of person agreement. Surprisingly Rashi gives us a rule we do not know!

Most people know that the subject, verb and object should agree in plurality and person. This is a rule in all languages. For example we say He speaks but They speak. Similar rules exist in Hebrew.

Rashi enunciates an exception to this rule: If you are speaking about something unpleasant you can switch from 1st person to 3rd person. This switch creates an artificial distance between you (the 1st person) and the unpleasnat topic.

Let us apply this Rahsi rule to Nu16-14 discussing the refusal of Dathan and Aviram to appear before Moshe. The intended verse is Moreover thou [Moses] hast not brought us into a land flowing with milk and honey, nor given us inheritance of fields and vineyards; will you take out our eyes [so we don't see what you have done to us]? we will not come up.' Following Rashi's principle we replace the underlined phrase, take out our eyes with the phrase take out their eyes or even better take out the eyes of these men. The entire verse would then read as follows: Moreover thou [Moses] hast not brought us into a land flowing with milk and honey, nor given us inheritance of fields and vineyards; will you take out the eyes of these men. [so we don't see what you have done to us]? we will not come up.

Advanced Rashi: This person-switch principle is universal to all languages and there are many examples of it in the Bible. Psychologically the use of this principle by Dathan and Aviram shows a heightened sensitivity to any suggestion of mishap. Such a heightened sensitivity is characteristic of the parnaoic state in which many of the slaves who left Egypt were still in. This paranoia prevented them from accepting God's love and ultimately led to their ruin. Interestingly the psychological evaluation of the Jews as paranoic is explicitly stated in the Bible Dt01-27, since the Hebrew root Resh-Gimel-Nun means paranoia.

    BRIEF EXPLANATION: Aligning two almost identically worded verselets can suggest
    • (4a) 2 cases of the same incident or law
    • (4b) emphasis on the nuances of a case
    • (4c) use of broad vs literal usage of words
    This examples applies to Rashis Nu18-20a
    URL Reference: (c)
    Brief Summary: The Levites didn't a) initially inherit land in Israel and also didn't b) divide in future war booty.

Verse Nu18-20a
Hebrew Verse ַיֹּאמֶר יְ־הֹוָ־ה אֶל אַהֲרֹן בְּאַרְצָם לֹא תִנְחָל וְחֵלֶק לֹא יִהְיֶה לְךָ בְּתוֹכָם אֲנִי חֶלְקְךָ וְנַחֲלָתְךָ בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל:
English Verse The Lord said to Aaron, You shall not inherit in their land, and you shall have no portion among them. I am your inheritance and portion among the children of Israel.
Rashi Header Hebrew וחלק לא יהיה לך בתוכם
Rashi Text Hebrew אף בביזה:
Rashi Header Enlish and you shall have no portion among them
Rashi Text English Even in the spoils of war. — [Sifrei Korach 45]

The table below presents an aligned extract of verses or verselets in Nu18-20a Both verses/verselets discuss the lack of Levite portion in Israel. The alignment justifies the Rashi assertion that Levites did not a) inherit the land upon entry nor b) take apportionments in conquests

Verse Text of Verse Rashi comment
    And the Lord spoke to Aaron,
    • You shall have no inheritance in their land,
    • neither shall you have any apportionment among them;
    I am your part and your inheritance among the people of Israel.
Levites did not a) inherit the land upon entry nor b) take apportionments in conquests
    And the Lord spoke to Aaron,
    • You shall have no inheritance in their land,
    • neither shall you have any apportionment among them;
    I am your part and your inheritance among the people of Israel.

Advanced Rashi: Everyone agrees that there is an alignment with an emphasis on two nuances, inheritance and apportionment. Rashi and Raavad explain as we have presented above - no inheritance on initial inheritance and no apportionment on conquests.

But the Rambam states There is no inheritance on initial conquest nor apportionment in the three lands annexed to Israel at the time of the coming of the Messiah. But Levites do take apportionment in conquests! Remarkable! The Raavad demurs: But the Bible explicitly states that the Levite 10% is in exchange for inheritance. So this would apply to conquests.

The Rambam can be defended by the extra underlined word in this verse, Nu18-21: And, behold, I have given the sons of Levi all the tenth in Israel for an inheritance, an exchange for their service which they serve, the service of the Tent of Meeting. So, the Rambam argues, the Levite 10% is only in exchange for inheritances. The Rambam does accept the double nuances of the alignment. However the Rambam argues that the two nuances refer to the initial inheritance and the future inheritance at the time of King Messiah (Both of these inheritances were promised to the Patriarch Abraham). Since however the verse explicitly delimits the 10% tithe exchange to inheritances it logically follows that Levites can apportion conquests.

The above explanation of the controversy of the early authorities is a peach of an example of how to apply the methods of this list to the resolution of controversies. Notice how all authorities agree on the fact of alignment and the resolution by two nuances. However Rambam adds an additional textual exegesis which delimits the two nuances to inheritances while Rashi and Raavad do not.

      BRIEF EXPLANATION:Rashi resolves contradictory verses using 3 methods.
      • (5a) Resolution using two aspects of the same event
      • (5b) Resolution using two stages of the same process
      • (5c) Resolution using broad-literal interpretation.
      This examples applies to Rashis Nu18-30b Nu18-30c
      URL Reference: (c)
      Brief Summary: Brief Summary: When a Levite receives Tithe he FIRST tithes his tithe to the priest. THEN the remainder can be eaten anyplace (it has no sanctity)

Verse Nu18-30b
Hebrew Verse ְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְנֶחְשַׁב לַלְוִיִּם כִּתְבוּאַת גֹּרֶן וְכִתְבוּאַת יָקֶב:
English Verse Say to them, When you separate its choicest part, it shall be considered for the Levites as produce from the threshing-floor and as produce from the vat.
Rashi Header Hebrew ונחשב
Rashi Text Hebrew המותר ללוים חולין גמורין:
Rashi Header Enlish it shall be considered
Rashi Text English The remainder shall be for the Levites and contain no sanctity whatsoever.

The table below presents two contradictory verses. Both verses talk about the similarity of the Levite Tithed-Tithe to granary grain. The underlined words highlight the contradiction. One verse says it (the tithed tithe) will have the same status as granary grain [which must be eaten in ritual purity] - Nu18-12:13 while the other verse says you will raise a gift (tithed-tithe) to the priest will be like granary grain ... you can eat it anywhere Which is it? Must there be ritual purity or may it be eaten anywhere (even the cemetery). Rashi simply resolves this using the 2 Stages Method method: 1) You separate tithe from the tithe (If the Terumah was not separated you separate that first). This tithed tithe has a status of granary grain gifts which must be eaten in ritual purity (Nu18-11:13). 2) Then the remaining grain will have the status of granary grain (after gifts have been separated) They can be eaten anyplace even in the cemetery (Nu18-31:32).

Summary Verse / Source Text of verse / Source
Tithed Tithe (and Terumah) must be eaten like grain that is in ritual purity Nu18-11:13 And this is yours; the offering of their gift, with all the wave offerings of the people of Israel; I have given them to you, and to your sons and to your daughters with you, by a statute forever; everyone who is clean in your house shall eat of it. All the best of the oil, and all the best of the wine, and of the grain, the first fruits of them which they shall offer to the Lord, these have I given you. And whatever is first ripe in the land, which they shall bring to the Lord, shall be yours; everyone who is ritually pure in your house shall eat of it.
After separating gifts the remainder will be like ordinary grain and can be eaten anywhere [Rashi: Even in a cemetery.] Nu18-30:31 Therefore you shall say to them, When you have set aside the best of it, then it shall be counted to the Levites as the grain in the granary, and as the produce of the winepress. And you shall eat it in every place, you and your households; for it is your reward for your service in the Tent of Meeting.
Resolution: 2 Stages 1) You separate tithe from the tithe (If the Terumah was not separated you separate that first). This tithed tithe has a status of granary grain gifts which must be eaten in ritual purity (Nu18-11:13). 2) Then the remaining grain will have the status of granary grain (after gifts have been separated) They can be eaten anyplace even in the cemetery (Nu18-31:32).

    Rashi examines how rules of style influences inferences between general and detail statements in paragraphs.
    • Example: Every solo example stated by the Bible must be broadly generalized;
    • Theme-Detail: A general principle followed by an example is interpreted restrictively---the general theme statement only applies in the case of the example;
    • Theme-Detail-Theme: A Theme-Detail-Theme unit is interpreted as a paragraph. Consequently the details of the paragraph are generalized so that they are seen as illustrative of the theme.
    This examples applies to Rashis Nu18-29a
    URL Reference: (c)
    Brief Summary: GIVE TITHE OF TITHE; like Israelite grain tithe; GIVE TITHE OF TITHE. Rashi: Similarity in requirements of eating (in ritual purity) and fine for violation.

Verse Nu18-29a
Hebrew Verse מִכֹּל מַתְּנֹתֵיכֶם תָּרִימוּ אֵת כָּל תְּרוּמַת יְ־הֹוָ־ה מִכָּל חֶלְבּוֹ אֶת מִקְדְּשׁוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ:
English Verse From all your gifts, you shall set aside every gift of the Lord, from its choicest portion, that part of it which is to be consecrated.
Rashi Header Hebrew מכל מתנתיכם תרימו את כל תרומת ה'
Rashi Text Hebrew בתרומה גדולה הכתוב מדבר, שאם הקדים לוי את הכהן בכרי וקבל מעשרותיו קודם שיטול כהן תרומה גדולה מן הכרי, צריך להפריש הלוי מן המעשר תחלה אחד מחמשים לתרומה גדולה, ויחזור ויפריש תרומת מעשר:
Rashi Header Enlish From all that is given to you, you shall set aside all God’s gifts
Rashi Text English Scripture refers to terumah gedolah [the gift set aside by the Israelites for the kohanim]. If the Levite preceded the kohen to the bin and accepted his tithes before the kohen took his terumah gedolah from the storage bin, the Levite must first separate one fiftieth from the tithe as terumah gedolah and then again separate another gift from the tithe. — [Shab. 127b]

Certain Biblical paragraphs are stated in a Theme-Development-Theme form. In other words a broad general idea is stated first followed by the development of this broad general theme in specific details. The paragraph-like unit is then closed with a repetition of the broad theme. The Theme-Detail-Theme form creates a unified paragraph. The detailed section of this paragraph is therefore seen as an extension of the general theme sentences. Today's example illustrates this as shown immediately below.

    Verses Nu18-26:28 are stated in a Theme-Development-Theme form as shown below:
  • General: Thus speak to the Levites, and say to them, When you take of the people of Israel the tithes which I have given you from them for your inheritance, then you shall ,offer up an offering of it for the Lord, a tenth part of the tithe.
  • Detail: And this your offering shall be reckoned to you, as though it were the grain of the threshing floor, and as the fullness of the winepress.
  • General: Thus you also shall offer an offering to the Lord of all your tithes, which you receive from the people of Israel; and you shall give from it the LordÆs gift to Aaron the priest.

Rashi treats the entire set of three verses as one paragraph with a central theme developed by details. The paragraph in essence states The Levites must give priestly gifts from their tithe similar to the Israelite gifts to the priests. Rashi interprets this to mean that the Levite and Israelite gifts are examples of the general category of gifts to the priest. The point here is that the paragraph structure indicates an underlying commonality to all gifts to priests, whether from Israelites or Levites. Since these gifts are all the same they all have the same requirements. They are all treated the same.

These requirements are spelled out in two verses. Verse Nu18-13 states that only people who are ritually pure may eat it; however it can be eaten by anybody - male or female. Verse Lv22-14 states that those non-Priests who accidentally eat holy gifts must pay a 25% fine.

      BRIEF EXPLANATION:Inferences from Biblical formatting: #NAME?
      • Use of repetition to indicate formatting effects: bold,italics,...;
      • use of repeated keywords to indicate a bullet effect;
      • rules governing use and interpretation of climactic sequence;
      • rules governing paragraph development and discourse
      This example applies to Rashis Nu16-05b
      URL Reference: (c)
      Brief Summary: In the morning God will let it be known a) WHO belongs to Him (LEVITES).... b) WHOM He selected (PRIESTS)

Verse Nu16-05b
Hebrew Verse וַיְדַבֵּר אֶל קֹרַח וְאֶל כָּל עֲדָתוֹ לֵאמֹר בֹּקֶר וְיֹדַע יְ־הֹוָ־ה אֶת אֲשֶׁר לוֹ וְאֶת הַקָּדוֹשׁ וְהִקְרִיב אֵלָיו וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר בּוֹ יַקְרִיב אֵלָיו:
English Verse He spoke to Korah and to all his company, saying, In the morning, the Lord will make known who is His, and who is holy, and He will draw [them] near to Him, and the one He chooses, He will draw near to Him.
Rashi Header Hebrew בקר ויודע ה' את אשר לו
Rashi Text Hebrew לעבודת לויה:
Rashi Header Enlish In the morning, the Lord will make known who is His
Rashi Text English For the Levitic services.

We have explained in our article Biblical Formatting located on the world wide web at, that the Biblical Author indicated bullets by using repeating keywords.

That is, if a modern author wanted to get a point across using bullets - a list of similar but contrastive items - then the Biblical Author would use repeating keywords. Today's verse illustrates this principle.

Bullets whether indicated through modern notation or through the Biblical method of repeating keywords always indicate contrastive emphasis - that is, each bullet is presumed to be a distinct item contrasted to the other items on the list. Very often the bullets are also used to indicate that the entire list of exhaustive of some spectrum.

    Verse(s) Nu16-05b discussing that it is God who has chosen certain people states And he spoke to Korah and to all his company, saying, Tomorrow the Lord will show
    • who are his, and who is holy; and will cause him to come near to Him;
    • whom he has chosen [and] and will him cause to come near to Him.
    The repeated underlined phrase who, whom (literally, the Hebrew word Aleph-Tauv, Eth) creates a bullet effect. The bullet effect in turn creates an emphasis on the distinctness of all enumerated items. Rashi interprets the distinctness as follows (1) The holy people who are His refers to the Levites (cf. Ex32-26) while (2) whom he has chosen refers to the Priests since some Priests e.g. the High priest is chosen and selected (cf. Lv16-32)

      BRIEF EXPLANATION:Rashi makes inferences from Database queries. The precise definition of database query has been identified in modern times with the 8 operations of Sequential Query Language (SQL).

      This example applies to Rashis Nu16-01c
      URL Reference: (c)
      Brief Summary: Non standard genealogical references can be used to indicate by inuendo certain support and lack of it for causes.

Verse Nu16-01c
Hebrew Verse וַיִּקַּח קֹרַח בֶּן יִצְהָר בֶּן קְהָת בֶּן לֵוִי וְדָתָן וַאֲבִירָם בְּנֵי אֱלִיאָב וְאוֹן בֶּן פֶּלֶת בְּנֵי רְאוּבֵן:
English Verse Korah the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi took [himself to one side] along with Dathan and Abiram, the sons of Eliab, and On the son of Peleth, descendants of Reuben.
Rashi Header Hebrew בן יצהר בן קהת בן לוי
Rashi Text Hebrew ולא הזכיר בן יעקב, שבקש רחמים על עצמו שלא יזכר שמו על מחלוקתם, שנאמר (בראשית מט, ו) ובקהלם אל תחד כבודי. והיכן נזכר שמו על קרח, בהתיחסם על הדוכן בדברי הימים, שנאמר (דה א' ו, כב - כג) בן אביאסף בן קרח בן יצהר בן קהת בן לוי בן ישראל:
Rashi Header Enlish the son of Izhar the son of Kohath the son of Levi
Rashi Text English [The verse] does not mention, “the son of Jacob,” because he [Jacob] prayed not to be mentioned in connection with their quarrel, as it is stated, “my honor, you shall not join their assembly” (Gen. 49:6). And where is his name mentioned in connection with Korah? In (I) Chron. (6:22, 23), where their genealogy is traced for the service of the Levites on the platform [in the Temple], as it says, “the son of Korah, the son of Izhar, the son of Kohath, the son of Levi, the son of Israel.” - [Midrash Tanchuma Korach 4, Num. Rabbah 18:5]

Today we ask the database query: How are genealogies indicated? The query uncovers many examples. An examination of these examples justifies the Rashi assertion that Genealogy by father is standard. Genealogy by brother indicates help in marriage. Genealogy with omission indicates lack of approval.

The table below presents results of the query along with illustrations of Rashi's comment.

Verse Verse text Genealogy method Inference
Nu01-05:15 EliTzur son of Shedayur By father No inference - standard
Gn28-09 Machalath of Nevayoth By brother He cared for her - helped her get married
Ex06-23 Elishevah of Nachshon By brother He cared for her - helped her get married
Gn34-25 Shimon and Levi ....brothers of Dinah By brother They cared for her (fought a city and saved her)
Nu16-01 Korach son of Yitzhar son of Kehath son of Levi By father,grandfather up to Levi (but no mention of Jacob/Israel) There behavior was non-Israelite

Advanced Rashi: Rashi cutely mentions 1C06-22:23 where the sons of Korach who composed, sang and delivered temple songs, were listed in full genealogy going back to Jacob. This verse contrasts nicely with our verse.

The main point here is that the database method uncovers the innuendo and exposes it as intended by the author. The large number of standard genealogies proves that non-standard genealogies were intentionally produced to hint at certain inuendos.

    BRIEF EXPLANATION: The common denominator of the 3 submethods of the Spreadsheet method is that inferences are made from non textual material. The 3 submethods are as follows:
    • Spreadsheet: Rashi makes inferences of a numerical nature that can be summarized in a traditional spreadsheet
    • Geometric: Rashi clarifies a Biblical text using descriptions of geometric diagrams
    • Fill-ins: Rashi supplies either real-world background material or indicates real-world inferences from a verse. The emphasis here is on the real-world, non-textual nature of the material.
    This example applies to Rashis Nu18-32b
    URL Reference: (c)
    Brief Summary: Don't DESCECRATE the Sanctuary and Don't Die. RASHI: So if you DESCECRATE it the consequence is you DIE.

Verse Nu18-32b
Hebrew Verse וְלֹא תִשְׂאוּ עָלָיו חֵטְא בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְאֶת קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא תְחַלְּלוּ וְלֹא תָמוּתוּ:
English Verse After you separate the choicest part from it, you shall not bear any sin on account of it, but you shall not profane the sacred [offerings] of the children of Israel, so that you shall not die.
Rashi Header Hebrew ולא תמותו
Rashi Text Hebrew הא אם תחללו תמותו:
Rashi Header Enlish So that you shall not die
Rashi Text English However, if you do profane it, you shall die. — [Bech. 26b]

Verse Nu18-32b the prohibition of descecrating Temple objects states And you shall bear no sin because of it, when you have set aside the best of it; you shall not descecrate the holy things of the people of Israel, and you shall not die. Rashi comments: This should be interpreted causatively: If you descecrate the holy things then you deserve to, and will, die.

To properly understand this we review certain rules of logic. The export-import law allows the conjunction and to exchange for an implication. For example, If it rains today and I don't have an umbrella, then I will get wet has the same logical meaning as If it rains today then if I don't have an umbrella, then I will get wet

In the Bible a statement of the form do not descecrate and you will not die has the same logical meaning as do not descecrate; if you descecrate then you will die.

In general any Biblical statement of the form don't do X and have consequence Y is similarly interpreted as Don't do X; If you do X the consequence is you will Y.

Since this interpretation primarily involves the formal manipulation of logical connectives we classify it as a non verse rule similar to the spreadsheet and diagram methods.

There are many examples of this rule in the Torah and we will have opportunity to visit it during this yearly cycle.

Verse Nu15-41e
Hebrew Verse אֲנִי יְ־הֹוָ־ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם לִהְיוֹת לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים אֲנִי יְ־הֹוָ־ה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם:
English Verse I am the Lord, your God, Who took you out of the land of Egypt to be your God; I am the Lord, your God.
Rashi Header Hebrew על כנפי בגדיהם
Rashi Text Hebrew כנגד (שמות יט, ד) ואשא אתכם על כנפי נשרים. על ארבע כנפות ולא בעלת שלש ולא בעלת חמש, כנגד ארבע לשונות של גאולה שנאמר במצרים (שמות ו, ו - ז) והוצאתי והצלתי וגאלתי ולקחתי:
Rashi Header Enlish on the corners of their garments
Rashi Text English Corresponding to [the verse said in connection with the exodus from Egypt]“I carried you on the wings (כַּנְפֵי) of eagles” (Exod. 19:4). On the four corners, but not on a garment of three or five [corners]. [This] corresponds to the four expressions of redemption that were said in Egypt:“I will take you out…I will save you…I will redeem you…I will take you” (Exod. 6:6-7). - [Mid. Aggadah]


This week's parshah contains no examples examples of the symbolism Rashi method. Visit the RashiYomi website at and for further details and examples.